Energy Law

Energy Law

Energy Law and Policy is one of the focus areas of the Center for Climate, Energy and Environmental Law. Research in this area covers a range of legal and interdisciplinary topics and areas:

  • European energy law and policy
  • International energy law and policy
  • Legal and regulatory issues in natural gas markets and gas utilization
  • International petroleum law and policy
  • comparative energy law and policy
  • Renewable energy

Current research topics and areas include a comparative study on gas markets in Europe and Africa, institutional issues in international natural gas markets, biofuels; regulation of offshore petroleum activities; petroleum regulation in Africa, renewable energy in Africa, regulation of shale gas in Europe and a general study on EU energy law and policy.

Research projects

Movement to a resource efficient and climate neutral electricity system, EL-TRAN (Academy of Finland, 2015-2021)

The consortium where UEF Law School is a member will help to resolve policy problems involved in a transition to a resource efficient, climate neutral electricity system. The initial phase of such a transition is currently underway in Finland. We welcome this initial vision. However, we suggest that Finland lacks a full comprehension of what resource efficiency entails in the context of this transition, what complex policy problems such a society-wide energy transition will involve and generate, and how to respond to them. To overcome the problems, we examine energy policy actors, their interests and cognitive frames, trends and structures influencing Finland’s electricity system, different renewable energy solutions and prospects of optimising the electricity system to realise the actors’ interests. We outline requirements for Finnish energy policy actors to implement the transition and a roadmap for the public sector to support the process.

Impact of shale gas in EU energy law and policy; regulatory and institutional perspective (Academy of Finland, 2014-2018)

The objective of the research is to increase understanding of the implication of unconventional gas deployment for policy formulation, institutions and implementation in natural gas strategies in Europe. The legal and regulatory issues connected to emergence and harnessing of unconventional gas resources are examined through both traditional positivist approach as well as through comparative approaches.

Finnish Cultural Foundation grant for postdoctoral research on the role of energy law and institutions in transitional energy markets

Dr Tade Oyewunmi has been awarded a Post Doc research grant by the Finnish Cultural Foundation through the Säätiöiden Post Doc Pooli. The project will highlight the costs and benefits of permitting more renewable energy sources (RES) like solar and wind in energy markets that have traditionally relied on hydrocarbons, especially natural gas which is known to be the most efficient and environmentally-friendly of fossil fuels. While RES may help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and pollution attributed to the conventional energy supply systems, its large-scale and lopsided use in liberalised and developed economies generally create significant technical and regulatory challenges such as rising distribution and transmission network congestion, network resilience and reliability issues, negative wholesale prices and declining profitability of existing conventional power plants. Thus, this project will examine the role of law and institutions in facilitating an efficient and reasonable balance in transition towards low-carbon energy supply and economies. Dr Oyewunmi will be hosted by the Tulane Center for Energy Law, Tulane University Law School in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA while carrying out this project.

Research Group Members

  • Dr Kim Talus, Professor of European Economic and Energy Law
  • Tade Oyewunmi, Senior Researcher
  • Moritz Wustenberg, Senior Researcher
  • Kaisa Huhta, Senior Lecturer
  • Sirja-Leena Penttinen, Senior Lecturer
  • Berryl Asiago, PhD researcher
  • Ioanna Mersinia, PhD researcher
  • Ayodele Oni, PhD researcher
  • Nana Asare Obeng-Darko, PhD researcher
  • Mykola Iakovenko, PhD researcher

Research Group’s Publications in 2016-2017


Kim Talus, Introduction to EU Energy Law (Oxford University Press 2016)

Eduardo Pereira and Kim Talus, Upstream Law and Regulation: A Global Guide (Globe Law and Business 2017)

Sirja-Leena Penttinen & Ioanna Mersinia, (eds): Energy Transitions: Regulatory and Policy Trends (Intersentia 2017)


Kim Talus, Application of EU energy and certain national laws of Baltic Sea countries to Nord Stream 2 pipeline project’, Journal of World Energy Law & Business 10 (2017) 1, 30-42.

Kim Talus and Raphael Heffron, The development of energy law in the 21st century: a paradigm shift?’ Journal of World Energy Law & Business 9 (2016) 3, 189-202

Kim Talus and Pami Aalto, Competences in EU energy policy’, J. Wouters ja R. Leal-Arcas (eds) Research Handbook on EU Energy Law and Policy (Edward Elgar 2017)

Sirja-Leena Penttinen, The First Examples of Designing the National Renewable Energy Support Schemes under the Revised EU State Aid Guidelines, 2 (37) European Competition Law Review (2016), pp. 77 – 83

Sirja-Leena Penttinen, The Next Chapter in the Saga of Renewable Energy Support Schemes: Still ‘a Certain Degree of Mystery’ European Law Review – January 2018

Kaisa Huhta, ’Prioritising Energy Efficiency and Demand Side Measures over Capacity Mechanisms under EU Energy Law’, 35(1) Journal of Energy & Natural Resources Law (2017)

Jaakko Jääskeläinen and Kaisa Huhta, ‘Trouble ahead? An interdisciplinary analysis of generation adequacy in the Finnish electricity market’, 8 International Energy Law Review

Berryl Asiago, Rules of Engagement: A Review of Regulatory Instruments Designed to Promote and Secure Local Content Requirements in the Oil and Gas Sector, Resources 2017, 6(3), 46

Berryl Asiago, The Regulatory Rationale for Local Content Requirements in the Oil and Gas Sectors, International Energy Law Review (September 2017)

Moritz Wüstenberg, An Overview of the Dichotomy between EU Energy Market Liberalisation and the Multilateral Trading System: Case Review of WTO Case DS476 – Certain Measures Relating to the Energy Sector, International Trade Law & Regulation, (Volume 22, Issue 1, 2016)
Moritz Wüstenberg, Reformation or standstill? Re-Regulating Energy Trade between the EU and Russia, International Energy Law Review, (Volume 34, Issue 7, 2016)

Moritz Wüstenberg, Back to the future: MFN treatment in an era of protectionism, Nordic Journal of International Law, (Volume 86, Issue 4, 2017)

Oyetade Oyewunmi, Security Implications of Conflicts, Crises and Disasters in the International Energy Industry: Legal and Policy Considerations in Research Handbook in Disasters and International Law, Susan C. Breau & Katja L.H. Samuel (eds.), (Edward Elgar, 2016) 272-294

Oyetade Oyewunmi, Examining the Role of Regulation in Restructuring and Development of Gas Supply Markets in the United States and the European Union, 40 Houston Journal of International Law (December 2017)

Meri-Katriina Pyhäranta, State ownership of petroleum resources: an obstacle to shale gas development in the UK?, The Journal of World Energy Law & Business, Volume 10, Issue 4, 1 August 2017, 358–366

Meri-Katriina Pyhäranta, Reforms in UK shale gas regulation: better prospects for investors? 25 (2) European Energy and Environmental Law Review (2016)

Dayann Obeng-Darko, “Renewable Energy and Goal Seven of the Sustainable Development Goals: A Perspective from the Ghanaian Renewable Energy Law and Policy,” International Energy Law Review 35, no. 4 (2017): 122–31.

Dayann Obeng-Darko, “Renewable Energy in Ghana and the Lessons from the EU: An Examination of the Regulatory Support Schemes,” Renewable Energy Law and Policy Review 7, no. 3 (2016): 46–60.

Recently completed PhD’s

Oyetade Oyewunmi, The Restructuring and Regulation of Gas-to-Power Markets: Nigeria and the EU as Case Studies (October 2017).

Cameron Kelly, Legal and regulatory framework for supporting large-scale renewable energy in Australia:a critical functional analysis (November 2016).