2023, 2022, 2021, 2020, 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010, 2009


1. Tynkkynen T., Vassaki M., Tiihonen TE., Lehto VP., Demadis KD., Turhanen PA., Simple and User-Friendly Methodology for Crystal Water Determination by Quantitative Proton NMR Spectroscopy in Deuterium Oxide. Anal. Chem. 2023, 95 (46), 17020-17027.

2. Wen H., Poutiainen P., Batnasan E., Latonen L., Lehto VP., Xu W., Biomimetic Inorganic Nanovectors as Tumor-Targeting Theranostic Platform against Triple-Negative Breast Cancer. Pharmaceutics 15 (10), 2507.

3. Xu W., Leskinen J., Sahlström T., Happonen E., Tarvainen T., Lehto VP., Assembly of fluorophore J-aggregates with nanospacer onto mesoporous nanoparticles for enhanced photoacoustic imaging. Photoacoustics 33, 2023, 100552.

4. Selenius M., Ruokolainen J., Riikonen J., Rantanen J., Näkki S., Lehto VP., Hyttinen M., Removing siloxanes and hydrogen sulfide from landfill gases with biochar and activated carbon filters. Waste Management 167, 31-38.

5. Haluska O., Meščeriakovė SM., Murashko K., Meščeriakovas A., Kalidas N., Rantanen J., Liu L., Salami A., Lappalainen R., Lähde A., Lehto VP., Riikonen J., Production of graphitic carbons from plant-based SiC/C nanocomposites for Li-ion batteries. MATER CHEM PHYS 2023, 296, 127286.

6. Iftekhar S., Deb A., Heidari G., Sillanpää M., Lehto VP., Doshi B., A review on the effectiveness of nanocomposites for the treatment and recovery of oil spill. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2023, 30 (7), 16947-16983.

7. Zhou F., Huang L., Li S., Yang W., Chen F., Cai Z., Liu X., Xu W., Lehto VP., Lächelt U., Huang R., Shi Y., Lammers T., Tao W., Xu Z., Wagner E., Xu Z. P., Yu H., From structural design to delivery: mRNA therapeutics for cancer immunotherapy. Exploration 2023, 00, 20210146.

8. Liu, J.; Dang, Y.; Tian, Q.; Lou, H.; Xu, W.; Xu, Z.; Zhang, W. Construction of a Multifunctional Peptide Nanoplatform for Nitric Oxide Release and Monitoring and Its Application in Tumor-Bearing Mice. Biosens Bioelectron 2023, 232.

9. Chameh, B.; Shaker, M.; Shahalizade, T.; Sadeghi Ghazvini, A.; Saznaghi, M. H.; Farhadi, S.; Shahroudi, H.; Raissi, B.; Aghaei, A.; Yaghmaee, M. S.; Riahifar, R. Impact of Preprocessing of Graphene Additive via Ultrasonication on the Electrochemical Performance of Activated Carbon-Based Supercapacitors. Energy Technology 2023, 11 (12).

10. Cai, X.; Tan, J.; Zhu, H.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, L.; Chen, X. Theoretical Study on the Graphitic Alkyne-like Metalorganic Framework Materials as the High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Chem Phys Lett 2023, 832, 140889.

11. Li, Y.; Feng, Y.; Zheng, D.; Zhao, X.; Zhou, Y.; Fu, X.; Chen, X. High-Performance Screening of Carbon-Nitride Single-Atom Catalysts for Oxygen Electrode Reaction in Rechargeable Metalair Batteries. Chemical Engineering Journal 2023, 476, 146753.

12. Zhu, H.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X. Probing High Catalytic Activity and Selectivity of Enzyme-Mimicking Single-Atom Catalysts Formed by Pyrrole-Type M-N4 Sites Embedded into g-C3N4 for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. J Environ Chem Eng 2023, 11 (5), 110382.

13. Liu, Q.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X. Single Transition Metal-Decorated C4N/MoS2 Heterostructure for Boosting Oxygen Reduction, Oxygen Evolution, and Hydrogen Evolution. J Colloid Interface Sci 2023, 648, 787–797.

14. Liang, X.; Ke, Q.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X. Graphene-Supported Tin Single-Atom Catalysts for COsub2/Sub Hydrogenation to HCOOH: A Theoretical Investigation of Performance under Different N Coordination Numbers. ACS Appl Nano Mater 2023, 6 (6), 4489–4498.

15. Chen, X.; Luo, L.; Huang, S.; Ge, X.; Zhao, X. Heterometallic Cluster-Based Organic Frameworks as Highly Active Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Oxygen Evolution Reaction: A Density Functional Theory Study. Front Chem Sci Eng 2023.

16. Guo, D.; Liu, J.; Zhao, X.; Yang, X.; Chen, X. Comparative Computational Study of CO2 Hydrogenation and Dissociation on Metal-Doped Pd Clusters. Sep Purif Technol 2023, 123462.

17. Chen, Q.; Ke, Q.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X. Ruthenium-Doped Boron Nitride Nanotubes as Promising Electrocatalysts for Carbon Dioxide Reduction to Methane. Diam Relat Mater 2023, 136, 109942.

18. Zhu, H.; Feng, Y.; Zheng, D.; Zhao, X.; Zhou, Y.; Fu, X.; Zhao, L.; Chen, X. Theoretical Prediction of Emerging High-Performance Trifunctional ORR/OER/HER Single-Atom Catalysts: Transition Metals Anchored into π–π Conjugated Graphitic Carbon Nitride (g-C10N3). Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2023, 25 (46), 31983–31994. 

19. Li, Y.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X. Oxo Transition Metal Anchored on C3N4 with Constructing a High-Activity Bifunctional Electrocatalyst for Rechargeable Metal–Air Batteries. Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics 2023, 25 (30), 20606–20617.

20. Chen, Q.; Ke, Q.; Zhao, X.; Chen, X. Enhanced Catalytic Activity for Methanol Synthesis from CO2 Hydrogenation by Doping Indium into the Step Edge of Rh(211): A Theoretical Study. Molecular Catalysis 2023, 542, 113123.

21. Li, Y.; Tan, J.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, L.; Chen, X. Two-Dimensional Phthalocyanine-Based Covalent Organic Frameworks as High-Performance Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Oxygen Evolution. Mater Today Commun 2023, 37, 107157.

22. Chen, X.; Luo, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, X. Theoretical Screening of Highly Efficient Single-Atom Catalysts Based on Covalent Triazine Frameworks for Oxygen Reduction. Langmuir 2023, 39 (19), 6905–6913.

23. Chen, X.; Dai, Y.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, X. Revealing the Steric Effects of Cobalt Porphyrin on the Selectivity of Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Colloids Surf A Physicochem Eng Asp 2023, 663, 131091.  

24. Chen, X.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X. Screening of Transition Metal-Based MOF as Highly Efficient Bifunctional Electrocatalysts for Oxygen Reduction and Oxygen Evolution. Surfaces and Interfaces 2023, 102821.   

25. Chen, X.; Zhang, Y.; Lin, S.; Zhang, H.; Zhao, X. Screening of Single Transition Metal Substitution in Two-Dimensional Mo2CT  MXene Electrocatalyst with Ultrahigh Activity for Oxygen Reduction Reaction. Surfaces and Interfaces 2023, 36, 102585.


1.  Liu, L., Yu, W., Seitsonen, J., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., Correct identification of the core-shell structure of cell membrane-coated polymeric nanoparticles. Chem. Eur. J. 2022, 28 (68) e202200947.

2. Kalidas, N., Shen, X., Yuan, M., Zhao, X. & Lehto, V-P., Controlled surface oxidation of mesoporous silicon microparticles to achieve a stable Si/SiOx anode for lithium-ion batteries. Micropor. Mesopor. Mat. 2022, 344:112243.

3. Kamakura, R., Raza, R., Sodum, N., Lehto, V-P., Kovalainen, M. & Herzig, K-H., Colonic delivery of nutrients for sustained and prolonged release of gut peptides: A novel strategy for appetite managementMol. Nutr. Food Res. 2022, 66:2200192.

4. Liu, L., Pan, D., Chen, S., Martikainen, M-V., Kårlund, A., Ke, J., Pulkkinen, H., Ruhanen, H., Roponen, M., Käkelä, R., Xu, W., Wang, J. & Lehto, V-P., Systematic design of cell membrane coating to improve tumor targeting of nanoparticles. Nat. Comm. 2022, 13:6181.

5. Xu, W., Pang, C., Song, C., Qian, J., Feola, S., Cerullo, V., Fan, L., Yu, H., & Lehto, V-P., Black porous silicon as a photothermal agent and immunoadjuvant for efficient antitumor immunotherapy. Acta Biomat. 2022, 151: 473–483.

6. Zhao, X., Kalidas, N. & Lehto, V-P., Self-standing mesoporous Si films as anodes for lithium-ion microbatteries. J. Power Sources 2022, 529:231269.

7. Wen, H., Närvänen, A., Jokivarsi, K., Poutiainen, P., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., A robust approach to make inorganic nanovectors biotraceable. Int. J. Pharm. 2022, 624:122040.

8. Qian, J., Wen., H., Tamarov, K., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., Recent developments of porous silicon nanovectors with various imaging modalities in the framework of theranostics. ChemMedChem 2022, 17 (10) e202200004.

9. Tiihonen, T., Nissinen, T., Turhanen, P., Vepsäläinen, J., Riikonen, J. & Lehto, V-P., Real-time on-site multi-element analysis of natural waters with portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) system. Anal. Chem. 2022, 94, 34, 11739–11744.

10. Iftekhar, S., Heidari, G., Amanat, N., Zare, E., Bilal Asif, M., Hassanpour, M., Lehto, V-P. & Sillanpää, M., Porous materials for the recovery of rare earth elements, platinum group metals and other valuable metals: A reviewEnviron. Chem. Lett. 2022, 20, 3697–3746.

11. Pasciak, A., Marin, R., Abiven, L., Pilch-Wróbel, A., Misiak, M., Xu, W., Prorok, K., Bezkrovnyi, O., Marciniak, L., Chaneac, C., Gazeau, F., Bazzi, R., Roux, S., Viana, B., Lehto, V-P., Jaque, D. & Bednarkiewicz, A., Quantitative comparison of light-to-heat conversion efficiency in nanomaterials suitable for photothermal therapyACS Appl. Mat. Inter. 2022, 14:33555−33566.

12. Li, J., Huang, L., Zhou, H., Shan, Y., Chen, F., Lehto, V-P., Xu, W., Luo, L. & Yu, H., Engineered nanomedicine blocks the PD-1/PD-L1 axis for potentiated cancer immunotherapy. Acta Pharmacol. Sin. 2022, 43(11):2749-2758.

13. Rahmani, A, Thapa, R, Aalto, J-M., Turhanen, P., Vepsäläinen, J., Lehto, V-P., & Riikonen, J., Functionalized nanoporous silicon for extraction of Sc from a leach solution. Hydrometallurgy 2022, 211:105866.

14. Pillai, M., Kalidas, N., Zhao, X. & Lehto, V-P., Biomass-based silicon and carbon for lithium-ion battery anodes. Front. Chem. 2022, 10:882081.

15. Honkanen, M., Mohammadi, A., te Moller, N., Ebrahimi, M., Xu, W., Plomp, S., Pouran, B., Lehto, V-P., Brommer, H., van Weeren, R., Korhonen, R., Töyräs, J. & Mäkelä, J., Dual-contrast micro-CT enables cartilage lesion detection and tissue condition evaluation ex vivo. Equine Vet. J. 2022, 315-324.

16. Asadi, S., Korganbayev, S., Xu, W., Mapanao, A., Voliani, V., Lehto, V-P., & Saccomandi, P., Experimental evaluation of radiation response and thermal properties of NPs-loaded tissues- mimicking phantoms. Nanomaterials, 2022, 12:945.

17. Kamakura, R., Raza, G., Mäkilä, E., Riikonen, J., Kovalainen, M., Ueta, Y., Lehto, V-P., Salonen, J. & Herzig, K-H., Colonic delivery of α-linolenic acid by an advanced nutrient delivery system prolongs glucagon-like peptide-1 secretion and inhibits food intake in mice. Mol. Nutr. Food Res. 2022, 66:2100978.

18. Chen, X., Liu, Q., Zhang, H., Zhao, X., Exploring high-efficiency electrocatalysts of metal-doped two-dimensional C4N for oxygen reduction, oxygen evolution, and hydrogen evolution reactions by first-principles screening. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2022, 24: 26061-26069

19. Liang, X., Kang, L., Ke, Q., Zhao, X., Chen, X., A comprehensive DFT study of CO2 methanation on the Ru-doped Ni(111) surface. Colloids Surf. A: Physicochem. Eng. Asp. 2022, 652:129858

20. Daglar, H., Altintas, C., Erucar, I., Heidari, G., Zare, E. N., Moradi, O., Srivastava, V., Iftekhar, S., Keskin, S., Sillanpää, M., Metal-organic framework-based materials for the abatement of air pollution and decontamination of wastewater. Chemosphere. 2022, 303: 135082

21. Asif, M. B., Iftekhar, S., Maqbool, T., Pramanik, B. K., Tabraiz, S., Sillanpää, M., Zhang, Z., Two-dimensional nanoporous and lamellar membranes for water purification: Reality or a myth?  J. Chem. Eng. 2022, 432: 134335

22. Happonen E., Husso M., and Matikka H., Effect of MOSFET dosimeters’ calibration method on calibration factors and radiation doses measured with the dosimeters in radiology. Biomed. Phys. Eng. Express. 2022, 8 (3): 035027


1. Tamarov, K.; Wang, J. T. W.; Kari, J.; Happonen, E.; Vesavaara, I.; Niemelä, M.; Perämäki, P.; Al-Jamal, K. T.; Xu, W.; Lehto, V. P. Comparison between Fluorescence Imaging and Elemental Analysis to Determine Biodistribution of Inorganic Nanoparticles with Strong Light Absorption. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2021, 13 (34), 40392–40400.

2. Liu, L.; Bai, X.; Martikainen, M. V.; Kårlund, A.; Roponen, M.; Xu, W.; Hu, G.; Tasciotti, E.; Lehto, V. P. Cell Membrane Coating Integrity Affects the Internalization Mechanism of Biomimetic Nanoparticles. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12 (1), 1–12.

3. Thapa, R.; Mondal, S.; Riikonen, J.; Rantanen, J.; Näkki, S.; Nissinen, T.; Närvänen, A.; Lehto, V. P. Biogenic Nanoporous Silicon Carrier Improves the Efficacy of Buparvaquone against Resistant Visceral Leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2021, 15 (6), 1–22.

4. Thapa, R.; Rahmani, A.; Turhanen, P.; Taskinen, A.; Nissinen, T.; Neitola, R.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Lehto, V. P.; Riikonen, J. Recovery of Uranium with Bisphosphonate Modified Mesoporous Silicon. Sep. Purif. Technol. 2021, 272.

5. Haluska, O.; Rahmani, A.; Salami, A.; Turhanen, P.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Lappalainen, R.; Lehto, V. P.; Riikonen, J. Plant-Based Nanostructured Silicon Carbide Modified with Bisphosphonates for Metal Adsorption. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 2021, 324.

6. Wen, H.; Tamarov, K.; Happonen, E.; Lehto, V. P.; Xu, W. Inorganic Nanomaterials for Photothermal-Based Cancer Theranostics. Adv. Ther. 2021, 4 (2).

7. Riikonen, J.; Rantanen, J.; Thapa, R.; Le, N. T.; Rigolet, S.; Fioux, P.; Turhanen, P.; Bodiford, N. K.; Kalluri, J. R.; Ikonen, T.; Nissinen, T.; Lebeau, B.; Vepsäläinen, J.; Coffer, J. L.; Lehto, V. P. Rapid Synthesis of Nanostructured Porous Silicon Carbide from Biogenic Silica. J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 2021, 104 (2), 766–775.

8. Zhao, X.; Lehto, V. P. Challenges and Prospects of Nanosized Silicon Anodes in Lithium-Ion Batteries. Nanotechnology 2021, 32 (4).

9. Valkama, E.; Haluska, O.; Lehto, V. P.; Korhonen, O.; Pajula, K. Production and Stability of Amorphous Solid Dispersions Produced by a Freeze-Drying Method from DMSO. Int. J. Pharm. 2021, 606.

10. Bessaies, H.; Iftekhar, S.; Asif, M. B.; Khriji, J.; Necibi, C.; Sillanpää, M.; Hamrouni, B. Characterization and Physicochemical Aspects of Novel Cellulose-Based Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposite for Removal of Antimony and Fluoride from Aqueous Solution. J. Environ. Sci. (China)2021, 102, 301–315.

11. Joseph, J.; Iftekhar, S.; Srivastava, V.; Fallah, Z.; Zare, E. N.; Sillanpää, M. Iron-Based Metal-Organic Framework: Synthesis, Structure and Current Technologies for Water Reclamation with Deep Insight into Framework Integrity. Chemosphere2021, 284.

12. Zare, E. N.; Iftekhar, S.; Park, Y.; Joseph, J.; Srivastava, V.; Khan, M. A.; Makvandi, P.; Sillanpaa, M.; Varma, R. S. An Overview on Non-Spherical Semiconductors for Heterogeneous Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Water Contaminants. Chemosphere2021, 280, 130907.

13. Asif, B.; Zeeshan, M.; Iftekhar, S.; Sillanpää, M. Promoted Three-Way Catalytic Activity of the Co3O4/TiO2 Catalyst by Doping of CeO2 under Real Engine Operating Conditions. Atmos. Pollut. Res. 2021, 12 (7).

14. Fallah, Z.; Zare, E. N.; Khan, M. A.; Iftekhar, S.; Ghomi, M.; Sharifi, E.; Tajbakhsh, M.; Nikfarjam, N.; Makvandi, P.; Lichtfouse, E.; Sillanpaa, M.; Varma, R. S. Ionic Liquid-Based Antimicrobial Materials for Water Treatment, Air Filtration, Food Packaging and Anticorrosion Coatings. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2021, 294.


1. Tamarov, K., Kiviluoto, R., Swanson, J. D., Unger, B. A., Ernst, A. T., Aindow, M., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P, Kolasinski, K. W., Low-load metal-assisted catalytic etching produces scalable porosity in Si powders. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 12:48969-48981 (2020).

2. Xu, W. J., Cui, P., Happonen, E., Leppanen, J., Liu, L. Z., Rantanen, J., Majda, D., Saukko, A., Thapa, R., Nissinen, T., Tynkkynen, T., Toyras, J., Fan, L., Liu, W. C., Lehto, V-P., Tailored synthesis of PEGylated bismuth nanoparticles for X-ray computed tomography and photothermal therapy: one-pot, targeted pyrolysis, and self-promotion. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 12:47233-47244 (2020).

3. Happonen, E., Tamarov, K., Martikainen, M. V., Ketola, K., Roponen, M., Lehto, V-P., Xu, W. J., Thermal dose as a universal tool to evaluate nanoparticle-induced photothermal therapy. Int. J. Pharm. 587 Article Number: 119657 (2020).

4. Liu, L. Z., Chen, S., Zhang, X., Xue, Z. J., Cui, S. J., Hua, X. T., Yang, B. W., Yan, H. L., Liu, C., Wang, J., Zhang, Z. F., Yu, W., Wu, F., Xu, W. J., Lehto, V-P., Yue, T. L., Liu, Y.,Yu, Y. S., Wang, T., Wang, J. L., Mechanical penetration of beta-lactam-resistant Gram-negative bacteria by programmable nanowires. Sci. Adv. 6 Article Number: eabb9593 (2020).

5. Kalidas, N., Riikonen, J., Xu, W. J., Lahtinen, K., Kallio, T., Lehto, V-P., Cascading use of barley husk ash to produce silicon for composite anodes of Li-ion batteries. Mater. Chem. Phys 245 Article Number: 122736 (2020).

6. Thapa, R., Nissinen, T., Turhanen, P., Maatta, J., Vepsalainen, J., Lehto, V-P., Riikonen, J., Bisphosphonate modified mesoporous silicon for scandium adsorption. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 296  Article Number: 109980 (2020).

7. Ikonen, T., Kalidas, N., Lahtinen, K., Isoniemi, T., Toppari, J. J., Vazquez, E., Herrero-Chamorro, M. A., Fierro, J. L. G., Kallio, T., Lehto, V-P., Conjugation with carbon nanotubes improves the performance of mesoporous silicon as Li-ion battery anode. Sci. Rep. 10 Article Number: 5589 (2020).

8. Riikonen, J., Nissinen, T., Alanne, A., Thapa, R., Fioux, P., Bonne, M., Rigolet, S., Morlet-Savary, F., Aussenac, F., Marichal, C., Lalevee, J., Vepsalainen, J. J., Lebeau, B., Lehto, V-P., Stable surface functionalization of carbonized mesoporous silicon. Inorg. Chem. Front. 7: 631-641 (2020).

9. Xu, W. J., Leskinen, J., Tick, J., Happonen, E., Tarvainen, T., Lehto, V-P., Black mesoporous silicon as a contrast agent for LED-based 3D photoacoustic tomography. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 12:5456-5461 (2020).

10. Tamarov, K., Swanson, J. D., Unger, B. A., Kolasinski, K. W., Ernst, A. T., Aindow, M., Lehto, V-P., Riikonen, J., Controlling the nature of etched Si nanostructures: high- versus low-load metal-assisted catalytic etching (MACE) of Si powders. ACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 12:4787-4796 (2020). 

11. Lähde, A., Haluska, O., Alatalo, S-M., Sippula, O., Meščeriakovas, Lappalainen, R., Nissinen, T., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Synthesis of graphene-like carbon from agricultural side stream with magnesiothermic reduction coupled with atmospheric pressure induction annealing. Nano Express, 1:010014, DOI:10.1088/2632-959X/ab82e5 (2020).

12. Honkanen, M. K. M., Saukko, A. E. A., Turunen, M. J., Xu, W. J., Lovric, G., Honkanen, J. T. J., Grinstaff, M. W., Lehto, V-P., Toyras, J., Triple contrast CT method enables simultaneous evaluation of articular cartilage composition and segmentation. Ann Biomed Eng 48: 556–567 (2020).

13. Zhang, W. T., Ren, X. Y., Shi, S., Li, M., Liu, L. Z., Han, X. M., Zhu, W. X., Yue, T. L., Sun, J., Wang, J. L., Ionic silver-infused peroxidase-like metal-organic frameworks as versatile “antibiotic” for enhanced bacterial elimination. Nanoscale 30: 16330-16338 (2020).

14. Yan, H. L., Liu, L. Z., Wang, R., Zhu, W. X., Ren, X. Y., Luo, L. P., Zhang, X., Luo, S. J., Ai, X. L., Wang, J. L., Binary composite MoS2/TiO2 nanotube arrays as a recyclable and efficient photocatalyst for solar water disinfection. Chem. Eng. J. 401  Article Number: 126052 (2020).


1. Lumen, D., Näkki, S., Imlimthan, S., Lambidis, E., Sarparanta, M., Xu, W., Lehto V-P. & Airaksinen, A., Site-specific 111In-radiolabeling of dual-PEGylated porous silicon nanoparticles and their in vivo evaluation in murine 4T1 breast cancer model. Pharmaceutics 11:686, DOI:10.3390/pharmaceutics11120686 (2019).

2. Gongalsky, M., Gvindzhiliia, G., Tamarov, K., Shalygina, O., Pavlikov, A., Solovyev, V. & Osminkina, L. A. Radiofrequency hyperthermia of cancer cells enhanced by silicic acid ions released during the biodegradation of porous silicon nanowiresACS omega4(6): 10662-10669 (2019). 

3. Kamakura, R., Kovalainen, M., Riikonen, J., Nissinen, T., Walkowiak, J., Lehto, V-P. & Herzig K., Inorganic mesoporous delivery system for controlled release of α-linolenic acid to stimulate GLP-1 secretionEur. J. Pharm. Biopharm., 144:132-138 (2019).

4. Soikkeli, M., Kettunen, M., Nivajärvi, R., Olsson, O., Rönkkö, S., Laakkonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Kavakka, J. & Heikkinen, S., Assessment of the relaxation enhancing properties of a nitroxide-based contrast agent TEEPO-Glc with in vivo magnetic resonance imagingContrast Media Mol. Imag., Article ID 5629597 (2019).

5. Sviridov, A., Tamarov, K., Fesenko, I., Xu, W., Andreev, V., Timoshenko, V. & Lehto, V-P., Cavitation induced by mesoporous Janus nanoparticles enhances ultrasound hyperthermiaFront. Chem7:393, DOI:10.3389/fchem.2019.00393 (2019).

6. Rantanen, J., Majda, D., Riikonen, J. & Lehto, V-P., The atomic local ordering of SBA-15 studied with pair distribution function analysis, and its relationship to porous structure and thermal stabilityActa Mater175:341-347 (2019).

7. Näkki, S., Wang, J., Wu, J., Fan, L., Rantanen, J., Nissinen, T., Kettunen, M., Backholm, M., Ras, R., Al-Jamal, K., Lehto, V-P. & Xu, W., Designed inorganic porous nanovector with controlled release and MRI features for safe administration of doxorubicinInt. J. Pharm554:327-336 (2019).


1. Xu, W., Tamarov, K., Fan, L., Granroth, S., Rantanen, J., Nissinen, T., Uski, O., Hirvonen, M.-R. & Lehto, V-P., Scalable synthesis of biodegradable black mesoporous silicon nanoparticles for highly efficient photothermal therapyACS Appl. Mater. Inter. 10:23529-23538 (2018).

2. Tamarov, K., Näkki, S., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., Approaches to improve biocompatibility and systemic circulation of inorganic porous nanoparticlesJ. Mat. Chem. B. 6:3632-3649 (2018).

3. Kovalainen, M., Kamakura, R., Riikonen, J., Finnilä, M., Nissinen, T., Rantanen, J., Niemelä, M., Perämäki, P., Mäkinen, M., Herzig, K-H. &, Lehto, V-P., Biodegradation of inorganic drug delivery systems in subcutaneous conditionsEur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 122:113-125 (2018).

4. Riikonen, J., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., Mesoporous systems for poorly soluble drugs – recent trendsInt. J. Pharm. 536:178-186 (2018).

5. Majda, D., Ikonen, T., Krupa, A., Lehto, V-P. & Makowski, W., Application of thermoporometry for characterization of mesoporous silicon: In search for probe liquid aimed at large poresMicropor. Mesopor. Mat. 264:1-7 (2018).


1. Näkki, S., Martinez, J.O. , Evangelopoulos, M., Xu, W.,  Lehto, V-P. & Tasciotti, E., Chlorin e6 functionalized theranostic multistage nanovector transported by stem cells for effective photodynamic therapy. ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces9: 23441-23449 (2017)

2. Tamarov, K., Sviridov A., Xu, W., Malo, M., Adreev, V., Timoshenko, V. & Lehto, V-P., Nano-air seeds trapped in mesoporous Janus nanoparticles facilitate cavitation and enhance ultrasound imagingACS Applied Materials & Interfaces9: 35234-35243 (2017).

3. Ikonen, T., Nissinen, T., Pohjalainen, E., Sorsa, O., Kallio, T. & Lehto, V-P., Electrochemically anodized porous silicon: Towards simple and affordable anode material for Li-ion batteriesScientific Reports , 7: 7880 (2017).

4. Drobczynski, S., Prorok, K., Tamarov, K., Dus-Szachniewicz, K., Lehto, V-P. & Bednarkiewicz, A., Towards controlled phototermal treatment of single cell: Optically induced heating and remote temperature monitoring in-vitro through double wavelength optical tweezersACS Photonics 4: 1993-2002 (2017).

5. Saukko A.,  Honkanen, J., Xu, W., Väänänen, S., Jurvelin, J., Lehto, V-P. & Töyräs, J., Dual contrast CT method enables diagnostics of cartilage injuries and degeneration using a single CT imageAnnals of Biomedical Engineering45:2857-2866 (2017).

6. Majda, D., Bhattarai, A., Riikonen, J., Napruszewska, B., Zimowska, M., Michalik-Zym, A., Töyräs, J. & Lehto, V-P. , New approach for determining cartilage pore size distribution: NaCl-thermoporometry,Microporous and Mesoporous Materials214:238-245 (2017).

7. Tamarov, K., Gongalsky, M., Osminkina, L., Huang, Y., Omar, M., Yakunin, V., Ntziachristos, V., Razansky, D. & Timoshenko, V., Electrolytic conductivity-related radiofrequency heating of aqueous suspension of nanoparticles for biomedicinePhysical Chemistry Chemical  Physics19:11510-11517 (2017).


1. Tamarov, K., Xu, W., Osminkina, L., Zinovyev, S., Soininen, P., Kudryavtsev, A., Gongalsky, M., Gaydarova, A., Närvänen, A., Timoshenko, V. & Lehto, V-P., Temperature responsive porous silicon nanoparticles for cancer therapy – Spatiotemporal triggering through infrared and radiofrequency electromagnetic heating. Journal of Controlled Release, 241:220-228 (2016). 

2. Nissinen, T., Näkki, S., Laakso, H., Kuciauskas, D., Kaupinis, A., Kettunen, M., Liimatainen, T., Hyvänen, M., Valius, M., Gröhn, O. & Lehto, V-P., Tailored dual PEGylation of inorganic porous nanocarriers for extremely long blood circulation in vivoACS Applied Materials & Interfaces8: 32723-32732 (2016).

3. Nissinen, T., Ikonen, T., Lama, M., Riikonen, J. & Lehto, V-P., Improved production efficiency of mesoporous silicon nanoparticles by pulsed electrochemical etchingPowder Technology288:360-365, (2016).

4. Peters, B-H., Staels, L., Rantanen, J., Molnár, F., De Beer, T., Lehto, V-P. & Ketolainen, J., Effects of cooling rate in microscale and pilot scale freeze-drying – Variations in excipient polymorps and protein secondary structureEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences95:72-81 (2016).

5. Hafshejani, L., Tangsir, S., Koponen, H., Riikonen, J., Karhunen, T., Tapper, U., Lehto, V-P., Moazed, H., Nazeri, A., Hooshmand, A., Jokiniemi, J., Bhatnagar, A. & Lähde, A., Synthesis and characterization of Al2O3 nanoparticels by flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) – Role of Fe ions in the precursor,  Powder Techonology298:42-49 (2016).

6. Korhonen, E., Rönkkö, S., Hillebrand, S., Riikonen, J., Xu, W., Järvinen, K., Lehto, V-P. & Kauppinen, A., Cytotoxicity assessment of porous silicon microparticles for ocular drug deliveryEuropean Journal of  Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics100:1-8, (2016).


1. Kovalainen, M., Mönkäre, J., Riikonen, J., Pesonen, U., Vlasova, M., Salonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Järvinen, K. & Herzig, K-H., Novel delivery systems for improving the clinical use of peptides. Pharmacol. Rev67:541-561 (2015).

2. Veselá, P., Riikonen, J., Nissinen, T., Lehto, V-P. & Slovák, V., Optimisation of thermoporometry measurements to evaluate mesoporous organic and carbon xero-, cryo- and aerogelsThermochim. Acta. 621:81-89 (2015).

3. Xu, W., Thapa, R., Liu, D., Nissinen, T., Granroth, S., Närvänen, A., Suvanto, M., Santos, H. &  Lehto, V-P.,Smart porous silicon nanoparticles with polymeric coatings for sequential combination therapyMol. Pharmaceut12:4038-4047 (2015).

4. Riikonen, J., Rigolet, S., Marichal, C., Aussenac, F., Lalevée, J., Morlet-Savary, F., Fioux, P., Dietlin, C., Bonne, M., Lebeau, B. & Lehto, V-P., Endogenous stable radicals for characterization of thermally carbonized porous silicon by solid-state dynamic nuclear polarization C-13 NMR. J. Phys. Chem. C 119:19272-19278 (2015).

5. Lehto, V-P, Kaljuvee, T. & Lastusaari, M., Special issue on the recent trends in thermal analysis and calorimetry in the European regionJ. Therm. Anal. Cal121:1-5 (2015).

6. Riikonen, J., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., Porous Silicon in Drug Delivery Applications in Electrochemically engineered nanoporous materials – Methods, properties and applications. Edited by D. Losic and A. Santos. Springer-Verlag (2015).

7. Jalkanen, T., Määttänen, A., Mäkilä, E., Tuura, J., Kaasalainen, M., Lehto, V-P., Ihalainen, P., Peltonen J. & Salonen, J., Fabrication of porous silicon based humidity sensing elements on paperJ. SensorsArticle ID 927396 (2015).

8. Soikkeli, M., Sievänen, K., Peltonen, J., Kaasalainen, T., Timonen, M., Heinonen, P., Rönkkö, S., Lehto, V-P., Kavakka, J. & Heikkinen, S., Synthesis and in vitro phantom NMR and MRI studies of fully organic free radicals, TEEPO-glucose and TEMPO-glucose, potential contrast agents for MRIRSC Adv. 5:15507-15510 (2015).

9. Riikonen, J., Correia, A., Kovalainen, M., Näkki, S., Lehtonen, M., Leppänen, J., Rantanen, J., Xu, W., Araújo, F., Hirvonen, J., Järvinen, K., Santos, H. & Lehto V-P., Systematic in vitro and in vivo study on porous silicon to improve the oral bioavailability of celecoxibBiomaterials 52:44-55 (2015).

10. Näkki, S., Rytkönen, J., Nissinen, T., Florea, C., Riikonen, J., Ek, P., Zhang, H., Santos, H., Närvänen, A., Xu, W. & Lehto, V-P., Improved stability and biocompatibility of nanostructured silicon drug carrier for intravenous administrationActa Biomat. 13:207-215 (2015).

11. Modesto-Lopez, L., Miettinen, M., Riikonen, J., Torvela, T., Pfüller, C., Lehto, V-P., Lähde, A., Jokiniemi, J.,Films of graphene nanomaterials formed by ultrasonic spraying of their stable suspensionsAerosol Sci. Tech49:45-56 (2015).


1. Xu, W., Rytkönen, J., Rönkkö, S., Kinnunen, T., Suvanto., M., Närvänen, A. & Lehto V-P., A nanostopper approach to selectively engineer the surfaces of mesoporous siliconChem. Mat. 26: 6734-6742 (2014).

2. Liu, D., Zhang, H., Herranz-Blanco, B., Mäkilä, E., Lehto, V-P., Salonen, J., Hirvonen, J. & Santos, H., Microfluidic assembly of monodisperse multistage pH-responsive polymer/porous silicon composites for precisely controlled multi-drug delivery. Small 10:2029-2038 (2014).

3. Vlasova, M., Rytkönen, J., Riikonen, J., Tarasova, O., Mönkäre, J., Kovalainen, M., Närvänen, A., Salonen, J., Herzig, K-H., Lehto, V-P. & Järvinen, K., Nanocarriers and the delivered drug: effect interference due to intravenous administrationEur. J. Pharm. Sci. 63:96-102 (2014).

4. Nissinen, T., Näkki, S., Latikka, M., Heinonen, M., Liimatainen, T., Xu, W., Ras, R., Gröhn, O., Riikonen, J. & Lehto V-P., Facile synthesis of biocompatible superparamagnetic mesoporous nanoparticles for imageable drug deliveryMicropor. Mesopor. Mat. 195:2-8 (2014).

5. Pajula, K., Wittoek, L., Lehto, V-P. Ketolainen, J. & Korhonen, O., Phase separation in co-amorphous systems: in silico prediction and the experimental challenge of detectionMol. Pharmaceut11:2271-2279 (2014).

6. Vlasova, M., Tarasova, O., Riikonen, J., Raula, J., Lobach, A., Borzykh, A., Smirin, B., Kauppinen, E., Eletskii, A., Herzig, K-H., Salonen, J., Tavi, P., Lehto V-P. & Järvinen, K., Injected nanoparticles: The combination of  experimental systems to assess cardiovascular adverse effects. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm87:64-72 (2014).

7. Rytkönen, J., Arukuusk, P., Xu, W., Kurrikoff, K., Langel, U., Lehto, V-P. & Närvänen, A. Porous silicon – cell penetrating peptide hydrid nanocarrier for intracellular delivery of oligonucleotidesMol. Pharmaceut. 11:382-390 (2014)

8. Turunen, E., Korhonen, O., Lehto, V-P., Kauppinen, A., Ahtiainen, H., Järvinen, K. & Jarho, P., Effect of storage on the dissolution rate of a fast-dissolving perphenazine/beta-cyclodextrin complexJ. Pharm. Pharmacol. 66:367-377 (2014).

9. Lehto, V-P. & Riikonen, J., Loading and characterization of porous silicon drug carriers in Porous silicon for biomedical applications. Edited by H. Santos. Woodhead Publishing Ltd, United Kingdom (2014)


1. Xu, W., Riikonen, J. & Lehto V-P., Mesoporous systems for poorly soluble drugsInt. J. Pharm453:181-197 (2013) Invited review article

2. Hellsten, S., Han, B., Mäkilä, E., Niemi, H., Salonen J., Lehto, V-P., Stelzer, T., Louhi-Kultanen. M. & Ulrich, J., Insights into the evaporation kinetics of indomethacin solutions. Chem. Eng. Techn36:1300-1306 (2013).

3. Priemel, P., Laitinen, R., Barthold, S., Grohganz, H., Lehto, V-P., Rades, T. & Strachan, C., Inhibition of surface crystallisation of amorhous indomethacin particles in physical drug-polymer mixtures. Int. J. Pharm. 456:301-306 (2013).

4. Huotari, A., Xu, W., Mönkäre, J., Kovalainen, M., Herzig, K-H., Lehto, V-P. & Järvinen, K., Effect of surface chemistry of porous silicon microparticles on glucagon-like peptide -1 (GLP-1) loading, release and biological acvitity, Int. J. Pharm454:67-73 (2013).

5. Liu, D., Bimbo, L., Mäkilä, E., Villanova, F., Kaasalainen, M., Herranz, B., Caramella, C., Lehto, V-P., Järvinen, K., Salonen, J. & Santos, H., Co-delivery of a hydrophobic small molecule and a hydrophilic peptide by porous silicon nanoparticles. J. Control . Rel. 170:268-278 (2013).

6. Kovalainen, M., Mönkäre, J., Kaasalainen, M., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Salonen, J., Herzig, K-H. & Järvinen, K. Development of porous silicon nanocarriers for parenteral peptide delivery. Mol. Pharmaceut10:353-359 (2013).

7. Lehto V-P., Salonen, J., Santos, H. & Riikonen, J., Nanostructured silicon-based materials as a drug delivery system for water-insoluble drugs in Drug Delivery Strategies for Poorly Water-Soluble Drugs. Edited by D. Douroumis and A. Fahr. Johh Wiley & Sons Ltd., Singapore (2013).


1. Jalkanen, T., Mäkilä, E., Määttänen, A., Tuura, J., Kaasalainen, M., Lehto, V-P., Ihalainen, P., Peltonen, J., & Salonen, J., Porous silicon micro- and nanoparticles for printed humidity sensors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 101:263110 (2012).

2. Kaasalainen, M., Mäkilä, E., Riikonen, J., Kovalainen, M., Järvinen, K., Herzig, K-H., Lehto, V-P. & Salonen, J., Effect of isotonic solutions and peptide adsorption on zeta potential of porous silicon nanoparticle drug delivery formulations. Int. J. Pharm431:230-236 (2012).

3. Rytkönen, J., Miettinen, R., Kaasalainen, M., Lehto V-P. Salonen, J. & Närvänen, A., Functionalization of mesoporous silicon nanoparticles for targeting and bioimaging purposesJ. Nanomat. Article ID 896562 (2012).

4. Xu, W., Riikonen, J., Nissinen, T., Suvanto, M., Rilla, K., Li, B., Deng, F., Lehto, V-P., Amine surface modifications and fluorescent labeling of thermally stabilized mesoporous silicon nanoparticles. J. Phys. Chem. C, 116:22307-22314 (2012).

5. Riikonen, J., Salomäki, M., van Wonderen, J., Kemell, M., Xu, W., Korhonen, O., Ritala, M., MacMillan, F., Salonen, J. & Lehto V-P., Surface chemistry, reactivity and pore structure of porous silicon oxidized by various methods. Langmuir  28:10573-10583 (2012).

6. Pajula, K., Lehto, V-P., Ketolainen, J. & Korhonen O., A computational approach for fast screening of small molecular candidates to inhibit crystallization in amorphous drugs. Mol. Pharmaceut9:2844-2855 (2012).

7. Nieminen, P., Paakkonen, T., Eerilä, H., Puukka, K., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P. & Mustonen A-M., Freezing tolerance and low-molecular-weight cryoprotectants in an invasive parasitic fly, the deer ked (Lipoptena cervi). J. Exp. Zool. Part B 317:1-8 (2012).

8. Kovalainen, M., Mönkäre, J., Mäkilä. E., Salonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Herzig, K-H. & Järvinen K., Mesoporous silicon (PSi) for sustained peptide delivery: Effect of PSi microparticle surface chemistry on peptide YY3-36 releasePharm. Res. 29:837-846 (2012).

9. Koradia, V., Tenho, M., Lopez de Diego, H., Ringkjøbing-Elema, M., Møller-Sonnergaard, J., Salonen, J., Lehto, V-P. & Rantanen, J., Investigation of solid phase composition on tablet surfaces by grazing incidence X-ray diffractionPharm. Res. 29:134-144 (2012).

10. Järvinen, K., Jokiniemi, J., Lammi, M., Lappalainen, R., Närvänen, A., Pakkanen, T. & Lehto, V-P., Nanoteknologia biomateriaalien ja lääkkeiden kantaja-aineiden pintojen räätälöinnissä. Duodecim 128:2085-2092 (2012).


1. Sarparanta, M., Mäkilä, E., Heikkilä, T., Salonen, J., Kukk, E., Lehto, V-P., Santos, H., Hirvonen, J., & Airaksinen, A., (18)F-labeled modified porous silicon particles for investigation of drug delivery carrier distribution in vivo with positron emission tomography. Mol. Pharmaceut. 8:1799-1806 (2011).

2. Miettinen, M., Johansson, M., Suvanto, S., Riikonen, J., Tapper, U., Pakkanen, T., Lehto, V-P., Jokiniemi, J., & Lähde A., Atmospheric pressure chemical vapor synthesis of silicon-carbon nanoceramics from hexamethyldisilane in high temperature aerosol reactor. J. Nanopart. Res. 13:4631-4645 (2011).

3. Limnell, T., Heikkilä, T., Santos, H., Sistonen, S., Hellstén, S., Laaksonen, T., Peltonen, L., Kumar, N., Murzin, D., Louhi-Kultanen, M., Salonen, J., Hirvonen, J. & Lehto, V-P., Physicochemical stability of high indomethacin payload ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 microparticlesInt. J. Pharm416:242-251 (2011).

4. Torvela, T., Lähde, A., Mönkäre, J., Riikonen, J., Lehtinen, K., Järvinen, K., Lehto, V-P., Jokiniemi, J. & Joutsensaari, J., Low-temperature aerosol flow reactor method for preparation of surface stabilized pharmaceutical nanocarriersJ. Aeros. Sci42:645-656 (2011).

5. Mönkäre, J., Riikonen, J., Rauma, E., Salonen, J., Lehto, V-P. & Järvinen K., In vitro dissolution methods for hydrophilic and hydrophobic porous silicon microparticles. Pharmaceutics 3:315-325 (2011).                      

6. Bimbo, L., Mäkilä, E., Laaksonen, T., Lehto, V-P., Salonen, J., Hirvonen, J. & Santos, H., Drug permeation across intestinal epithelial cells using porous silicon nanoparticlesBiomaterials 32:2625-2633 (2011).

7. Santos, H., Bimbo, L., Lehto, V-P., Airaksinen, A., Salonen, J. & Hirvonen J., Multifunctional porous silicon for therapeutic drug delivery and imaging. Curr. Drug Discov. Technol8:228-249  (2011). Invited review article.

8. Riikonen, J, Salonen, J. & Lehto V-P., Utilising thermoporometry to obtain new insights into nanostructured materials – Part 1. J. Therm. Anal. Cal. 105:811-821 (2011). Invited review article.

9. Riikonen, J, Salonen, J. & Lehto V-P., Utilising thermoporometry to obtain new insights into nanostructured materials – Part 2J. Therm. Anal. Cal. 105:823-830 (2011). Invited review article

10. Santos, H., Salonen, J., Bimbo, L., Lehto, V-P., Peltonen, L. & Hirvonen J., Mesoporous materials as controlled drug delivery formulations. J. Drug. Deliv. Sci. Tec. 21:139-155 (2011). Invited review article.

11. Koivisto, A., Mäkinen, M., Rossi, E., Lindberg, H., Miettinen, M., Falck, G., Norppa, H., Alenius, H., Korpi, A., Riikonen, J., Vanhala, E., Vippola, M., Pasanen, P., Lehto, V-P., Savolainen, K., Jokiniemi, J. & Hämeri K., Aerosol characterization and lung deposition of synthesized TiO2 nanoparticles for murine inhalation studies. J. Nanopart. Res. 13:2949-2961 (2011).

12. Turunen, E., Mannila, J., Laitinen, R., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Järvinen, T., Ketolainen, J., Järvinen, K. & Jarho, P., Fast-dissolving sublingual solid dispersion and cyclodextrin complex increase the absorption of perphenazine in rabbits. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 63:19-25 (2011).

13. Kilpeläinen, M., Mönkäre, J., Vlasova, M., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Salonen, J., Järvinen, K. & Herzig, K-H., Nanostructured Porous Silicon Microparticles Enable Sustained Peptide (Melanotan II) Delivery. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 77:20-25 (2011).


1. Lehto, V-P., Tenho, M., Hämäläinen O-P. & Salonen J., Calorimetric determination of dissolution enthalpy with a novel flow-through method. J. Pharm. Biomed. Anal53:821-825 (2010).

2. Bimbo, L., Sarparanta, M., Santos, H., Airaksinen, A., Mäkilä, E., Laaksonen, T., Peltonen, L., Lehto, V-P., Hirvonen, J. & Salonen, J., Biocompatibility of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon nanoparticles and their biodistribution in rats. ACS Nano 4(6):3023-3032 (2010).

3. Pajula, K., Taskinen, M., Lehto, V-P., Ketolainen, J. & Korhonen, O., Prediction of the formation and stability of amorphous small molecule binary mixtures from computationally determined Flory-Huggins interaction parameter and phase diagram. Mol. Pharmaceut7(3):795-804 (2010).

4. Santos, H., Riikonen, J., Salonen, J., Mäkilä, E., Heikkilä, T., Laaksonen, T., Peltonen, L., Lehto, V-P. & Hirvonen J., In vitro cytotoxicity of porous silicon microparticles: Effect of the particle concentration, surface chemistry and sizeActa Biomater. 6:2721-2731 (2010).

5. Laitinen, R., Suihko, E., Björkqvist, M., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Järvinen, K., & Ketolainen, J., Perphenazine solid dispersions for orally fast disintegrating tablets: physical stability and formulationDrug Dev. Ind. Pharm. 36(5):601-613 (2010).

6. Raula, J., Thielmann, F., Naderi, M., Lehto, V-P. & Kauppinen, E., Investigations on particle surface characteristics vs. dispersion behaviour of L-leucine coated carrier-free inhalable powders. Int. J. Pharm. 383:79-85 (2010).

7. Heikkilä, T., Santos, H., Kumar, N., Murzin, D., Salonen, J., Laaksonen, T., Peltonen, L., Hirvonen, J. & Lehto, V-P., Cytotoxicity study of ordered mesoporous silica MCM-41 and SBA-15 microparticles on Caco-2 cells, Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 74:483-494 (2010).


1. Hahn, R., Schmidt-Stein, F., Salonen, J., Thiemann, S., Song, Y., Kunze, J., Lehto, V-P. & Schmuki, P., Semi-metallic TiO2 Nanotubes. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 48:7236-7239 (2009).

2. Riikonen, J., Salonen, J., Kemell, M., Kumar, N., Murzin, D., Ritala, M. & Lehto, V-P., A Novel Method of Quantifying u-shaped Pores in SBA-15J. Phys. Chem. C113:20349–20354 (2009).

3. Kilpeläinen, M., Riikonen, J., Vlasova, M. A., Huotari, A., Lehto, V-P., Salonen, J., Herzig, K. H. & Järvinen, K., In vivo delivery of a peptide, ghrelin antagonist, with mesoporous silicon microparticles. J. Control. Rel. 137:166-170 (2009).

4. Miettinen,M., Riikonen, J., Tapper, U., Backman, U., Joutsensaari, J., Auvinen, A., Lehto V-P. & Jokiniemi, J., Development of a highly controlled gas-phase nanoparticle generator for inhalation exposure studiesHum. Exp. Toxicol28:413-419 (2009).

5. Riikonen, J., Mäkilä, E., Salonen, J. & Lehto, V-P., Determination of the Physical State of Drug Molecules in Mesoporous Silicon with Different Surface Chemistries. Langmuir 25:6137-6142 (2009).

6. Pastor, E., Balaguer, M., Bychto, L., Salonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Matveeva, E. & Chirvony, V., Porous Silicon for Photosensitized Formation of Singlet Oxygen in Water and in Simulated Body Fluid: Two Methods of Modification by Undecylenic Acid. J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 9:3455-3461 (2009).

7. Jalkanen, T., Torres-Costa, V., Salonen, J., Björkqvist, M., Mäkilä, E., Martinez-Duart, J.M. & Lehto, V-P., Optical gas sensing properties of thermally hydrocarbonized porous silicon Bragg reflectors. Optics Express 17:5446-5456 (2009).

8. Laitinen, R., Suihko, E., Toukola, K., Björkqvist, M., Riikonen, J., Lehto, V-P., Järvinen, K. & Ketolainen, J., Intraorally fast-dissolving particles of a poorly soluble drug: Preparation and in vitro characterization. Eur. J. Pharm. Biopharm. 71:271-281 (2009).