Photonics materials

Carbon nanomaterials

Carbon nanomaterials

Carbon nanomaterials

Carbon is unique material providing diversity of forms and shapes in its condensed state. Naostructured carbons, such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nanodiamonds, graphene, are especially attractive for researchers because of unusual properties and exciting perspectives for practical applications.

In our group we are developing methods for production and modification of carbon (and especially nanocarbon) materials with use of a plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (CVD) and laser assisted processes. The obtained materials are characterized with use laser Raman spectroscopy, electron microscopy and other methods. Our research interests in application of the nanocarbon materials are related mainly to electronics and photonics.

Contact persons:

Recent publications:

  1. Tommi Kaplas, Antti Matikainen, Tarmo Nuutinen, Sari Suvanto, Pasi Vahimaa, and Yuri Svirko. ”Scalable fabrication of the graphitic substrates for graphene-enhanced Raman spectroscopy”, Scientific reports, 7, 8561 (2017).
  2. V. Porshyn, E.A. Obraztsova, A.N. Obraztsov, Photoinduced effects in field electron emission from diamond needles, Applied Physics Letters 110, 182101 (2017);
  3. D.A. Lyashenko, Y.P. Svirko, M.I. Petrov, A.N. Obraztsov, The laser assisted field electron emission from carbon nanostructure, Journal Of The European Optical Society-Rapid Publications 13, 4 (2017)
  4. A.S. Orekhov, F.T. Tuyakova, E.A. Obraztsova, A.B. Loginov, A.L. Chuvilin, A.N. Obraztsov, Structural peculiarities of single crystal diamond needles of nanometer thickness, Nanotechnology 27, 455707 (2017).
  5. Feruza Tuyakova, Ekaterina A. Obraztsova, Evgeny V.Korostylev, Dmitry V. Klinov, Kirill A. Prusakov, Andrey A. Alekseev, Rinat R. Ismagilov, Alexander N. Obraztsov, “Photo- and cathodo-luminescence of needle-like single crystal diamonds”, J. Luminescence 179 539–544 (2016)
  6. V. I. Kleshch, S. T. Purcell, A. N. Obraztsov, Single Crystal Diamond Needle as Point Electron Source, Scientific Reports 6, 35260 (2016)
  7. Victor I. Kleshch, Alexander A. Tonkikh, Sergey A. Malykhin, Eugene V. Redekop, Andrey S. Orekhov, Andrey L. Chuvilin, Elena D. Obraztsova, and Alexander N. Obraztsov, “Field emission from single-walled carbon nanotubes modified by annealing and CuCl doping”, Appl. Phys. Lett. 109, 143112 (2016)
  8. Tatiana V. Magdesieva, Petr V. Shvets, Oleg M. Nikitin, Ekaterina A. Obraztsova, Feruza T. Tuyakova, Vladimir G. Sergeyev, Alexey R. Khokhlov, Alexander N. Obraztsov, “Electrochemical characterization of mesoporous nanographite films”, Carbon 105, 96-102 (2016)
  9. M. Harb, H. Enquist, A. Jurgilaitis, F.T. Tuyakova, A.N. Obraztsov, and J. Larsson, “Phonon-phonon interactions in photoexcited graphite studied by ultrafast electron diffraction”, Physical Review B 93, 104104 (2016)
  10. Victor I. Kleshch, Rinat R. Ismagilov, Elena A. Smolnikova, Ekaterina A. Obraztsova, Feruza Tuyakova, and Alexander N. Obraztsov, “Atomic layer deposition of TiO2 and Al2O3 on nanographite films: structure and field emission properties”, Journal of Nanophotonics 10, 012509(2016)
  11. Mahesh Kumar, Jani Tervo, Tommi Kaplas, Yuri Svirko “Graphene-enhanced waveguide resonance gratings” Journal of Nanophotonics 10, 012518 (2016)
  12. O. V. Shustova, V. V. Zhurikhina,  A. A. Lipovskii, Yu. P. Svirko “Control of Glass–Metal Composite Optical Nonlinearity via Nanostructuring”, Plasmonics, 11, 581-585 (2016)
  13. Rumiana Kotsilkova, Peter Todorov,  Evgeni Ivanov, Tommi Kaplas, Yuri Svirko , Alesya Paddubskaya, Polina Kuzhir, “Mechanical properties investigation of bilayer graphene/poly(methyl methacrylate) thin films at macro, micro and nanoscale”, Carbon 100 355- 366 (2016).
  14. T. Kaplas, L. Karvonen, S. Ahmadi, B. Amirsolaimani, S. Mehravar, N. Peyghambarian, K. Kieu, S. Honkanen, H. Lipsanen, and Yuri Svirko, “Optical characterization of directly deposited graphene on a dielectric substrate”, Optics Express 24,  2965 – 2970 (2016)
  15. D. Karpov, S. Sherbak., Yu. Svirko, A. Lipovskii, “Second harmonic generation from hemispherical metal nanoparticle сovered by dielectric layer” J. Nonlinear Optic. Phys. Mat. 25, 1650001 (2016)
  16. Konstantin Batrakov, Polina Kuzhir, Sergey Maksimenko, N. Volynets, Sophia Voronovich, Alesia Paddubskaya, Gintaras Valušis, Tommi Kaplas, Yuri P. Svirko, and Philippe Lambin, “Enhanced microwave-to-terahertz absorption in graphene”, Applied Physics Letters, 108, 123101 (2016).
  17. R. Drevinskas, J. Y. Zhang, M. Beresna M. Gecevicius, A. G. Kazanskii, Yu. P. Svirko, P. G. Kazansky, “Laser material processing with tightly focused cylindrical vector beams”, Applied Physics Letters 108, 221107 (2016)
  18. A. Shah, P. Stenberg, L. Karvonen, R. Ali, S. Honkanen, H. Lipsanen, N. Peyghambarian, M. Kuittinen, Y. Svirko, T. Kaplas, “Pyrolytic carbon coated black silicon” Scientific Reports 6, 25922 (2016).

Nanocarbon laboratory

Nanocarbon laboratory

All of the natural elements Carbon may take most various forms such as amorphous, graphite or diamond. Single atom graphene layers may form carbon nanotubes or fullerene molecules. In our Department nanocarbon laboratory we are able to produce such a carbon structures from graphene layers to microdiamonds.

Although all the carbon atoms are similar different carbon forms has different properties. Thin graphite chips acts as electron sources like cathodes but withoutheating. Diamond is a well known durable material which can be used as micrometer scaleblades in precision machining tools.

Most of these nanocarbon structures can be fabricated in our laboratory unique Hydrogen-Methane-CVD system which is especially designed for this flexibility. Fabricated nanocarbon structures are examined in our femtosecond laser laboratory, characterization laboratory and optical laboratories.

Further information: Pertti Pääkkönen

Functional surfaces

Functional surfaces with femtosecond laser ablation

One can have remarkable control of the surface properties by patterning it to contain micro- and nanometer sized structures. In a femtosecond laser ablation those structures are produced with an very short laser pulses that enables precise controlled way to modify the surface topology.

With small structures one can control various functionalities including reflection of light, hydrophobicity, oleophobicity, and even the growth of biological material on the surface. Each functionality requires its own surface structure and proper chemical properties of the surface material. The femtosecond laser provides enough energy in each light pulse so that practically any material from stainless steel to biological tissues can be ablated.

Our team has developed the efficiency of the ablation process by introducing various ways to control the laser beam. These include, e.g., interferometric pattern in ablation and array of beams constructed with diffractive gratings. Also, we have worked successfully in the replication of the structures onto polymer surfaces.


Former members:

  • PhD Jarno Kaakkunen

More information about the research

Presentations in Sway

A spherical image of the femtosecond laser laboratory

Externally funded projects:

  • FinFem: Nano structures and applications with fs laser technology, 2008-2010. Funded by Tekes,
  • Multibeam: Multiple laser beam processing in mass production, 2011-2013. Funded by Tekes,
  • Laser-ablation assisted spectroscopy the diagnostics of plants, 2014. Funded by Tekes/ERF,


Martti Silvennoinen, "Precise material processing with Spatial Light Modulator - controlled Femtosecond laser beam," PhD thesis, University of Eastern Finland (2014).

Jarno Kaakkunen, "Fabrication of functional surfaces using ultrashort laser pulse ablation," PhD thesis, University of Eastern Finland (2011).

M. Silvennoinen, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, K. Päiväsaari, and P. Vahimaa, ”Parallel femtosecond laser ablation with individual controlled intensity,” Optics Express, 22, 2603-2608 (2014).

K. L. Wlodarczyk, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, P. Vahimaa, and D. P. Hand, ”Efficient speckle-free laser marking using a spatial light modulator,” Applied Physics A, DOI 10.1007/s00339-013-8186-1 (2013)

M. Silvennoinen, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, K. Päiväsaari, and P. Vahimaa, ”Water spray assisted ultrashort laser pulse ablation,” Applied Surface Science, 265, 865-869 (2013).

M. Silvennoinen, J. J. J. Kaakkunen, K. Päiväsaari, and P. Vahimaa, ” Parallel microstructuring using femtosecond laser and spatial light modulator,” Physics Procedia, 41, 1875-3892 (2013).

T. Nuutinen, M. Silvennoinen, K. Päiväsaari, and P. Vahimaa, ”Control of cultured human cells with femtosecond laser ablated patterns on steel and plastic surfaces,” Biomedical Microdevices 15(2), 279-288 (2013).

J. J. J. Kaakkunen, M. Silvennoinen, K. Päiväsaari, and P. Vahimaa, ”Water-assisted femtosecond laser pulse ablation of high aspect ratio holes,” Physics Procedia, 12(2), 89-93 (2011).

J. J. J. Kaakkunen, K. Päiväsaari, and P. Vahimaa, ” Fabrication of large-area hole arrays using high-efficiency two-grating interference system and femtosecond laser ablation,” Applied Physics A – Materials Science & Processing, 103, 267-270 (2011).

M. Silvennoinen, J.J.J. Kaakkunen, K. Päiväsaari, P. Vahimaa, and T. Jääskeläinen, ”Controlling the hydrophopic properties of material using femtosecond ablations,” Journal of Laser Micro Nanoengineering, 5, 97-98 (2010).

Femtosecond laser laboratory

Femtosecond laser laboratory

When laser light is packed to 100 femtosecond of duration the optical power equals power of 30 modern nuclear power plants. When focused down to a micrometer scale focal point the irradiance in the focus becomes trillions times higher than in the core of the Sun where temperature reach 20 million Centigrades.

Pulses of this kind can deform any materials by technology called laser ablation. Though the energy densities of the pulses are enormous the total energy is so low that the pulses do not remarkably heat the sample. With focused pulses a micrometer scale holes can be produced and the material fallen away may form a new types of nanostructures. A surface of this kind may be, e.g., water and dirt repellent and antireflective.

In our femtosecond laboratory many kind of surface materials with various chmical and physical properties can be fabricated. Femtosecond pulses can be also used in production of nanoparticles and in studies of material properties. Also, latest theories on nonstationary optical coherence can be evaluated with ultrashort laser pulses in practice.

Most important femtosecond laser laboratory tools:

  • Quantronix Integra-C 3,5mJ femtosecond laser
  • CDP TISSA 50 femtosecond laser
  • Grenouille FROG beam analyzer
  • CDP ExciPro pump-probe spektrometer

Further information: Pertti Pääkkönen

New materials and surfaces

Organometallic synthesis

Organometallic synthesis

The group belongs to the Department of Chemistry and the Institute of Photonics. It is also a member of the Academy of Finland’s Flagship on Photonics Research and Innovation (PREIN).

The group is currently focused on the design, preparation and theoretical analysis of a range of inorganic and organometallic photofunctional molecular materials. The research laboratory is well-equipped for structural and spectroscopic characterization of new compounds with crystallographic and NMR techniques.

In research, the group actively collaborates with international partners from St.-Petersburg State University, National Taiwan University, Technical University of Dortmund, University of Münster, University of Cologne. Our projects are funded by the University of Eastern Finland and the Academy of Finland.


Chemistry laboratories are located at the Futura building (UEF, Joensuu campus). The infrastructure includes, for example, the following devices:

  • JNM-EC500 JEOL 500MHz NMR spectrometer: characterization of chemical structure of liquid and solid materials
  • Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer: characterization of chemical structure of materials
  • Elementar Vario Micro series gas chromatography elemental microanalysator: quantitative analysis of nitrogen, sulphur, hydrogen and carbon
  • Bruker AXS Kappa Apex Duo, Bruker AXS Smart Apex II, Nonius Kappa Apex single crystal X-ray diffractometers: determination of molecular structures of crystalline materials
  • Bruker ACS D8 Advance X-ray diffractometer: characterization of powder crystalline samples

Group members (

Selected publications:

  1. Sivchik, V.; Kochetov, A.; Eskelinen, T.; Kisel, K. S.; Solomatina, A. I.; Grachova, E. V.; Tunik, S. P.; Hirva, P.; Koshevoy, I. O. Modulation of Metallophilic and π–π Interactions in Platinum Cyclometalated Luminophores with Halogen Bonding. Chem. Eur. J. 2021, 27, 1787-1794.
  2. Lin, T.-C.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Liu, S.-H.; Koshevoy, I. O.; Chou, P.-T. Counterion Migration Driven by Light-Induced Intramolecular Charge Transfer. JACS Au 2021, 1, 282-293.
  3. Belyaev, A.; Slavova, S. O.; Solovyev, I. V.; Sizov, V.; Jänis, J.; Grachova, E. V.; Koshevoy, I. O. Solvatochromic dual luminescence of Eu-Au dyads decorated with chromophore phosphines. Inorg. Chem. Front. 2020, 7, 140-149.
  4. Belyaev, A.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Karttunen, A. J.; Chou, P.-T.; Igor O. Koshevoy A Facile Molecular Machine: Optically Triggered Counterion Migration via Charge Transfer of Linear D-π-A Phosphonium Fluorophores. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2019, 58, 13456–13465.
  5. Belyaev, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Liu, Z.-Y.; Hindenberg, P.; Wu, C.-H.; Chou, P.-T.; Romero-Nieto, C.; Koshevoy, I. O. Intramolecular Phosphacyclization: Polyaromatic Phosphonium P-Heterocycles with Wide Tuning Optical Properties (420-780 nm emission). Chem. Eur. J. 2019, 25, 6332–6341.
  6. Shakirova, J. R.; Grachova, E. V.; Gurzhiy, V. V.; Thangaraj, S. K.; Jänis, J.; Melnikov, A. S.; Karttunen, A. J.; Tunik, S. P.; Koshevoy, I. O. Heterometallic cluster-capped tetrahedral assemblies with postsynthetic modification of the metal cores. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2018, 57, 14154-14158.
  7. Belyaev, A.; Eskelinen, T.; Dau, T. M.; Ershova, Y. Y.; Tunik, S. P.; Melnikov, A. S.; Hirva, P.; Koshevoy, I. O. Cyanide-assembled d10 coordination polymers and cycles: excited state metallophilic modulation of solid-state luminescence. Chem. Eur. J. 2018, 24, 1404–1415.
  8. Belyaev, A.; Chen, Y.-T.; Su, S.-H.; Tseng, Y.-J.; Karttunen, A. J.; Tunik, S. P.; Chou, P.-T.; Koshevoy, I. O. Copper-mediated phospha-annulation to attain water-soluble polycyclic luminophores. Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 10954-10957.
  9. Chakkaradhari, G.; Chen, Y.-T.; Karttunen, A. J.; Dau, M. T.; Jänis, J.; Tunik, S. P.; Chou, P.-T.; Ho, M.-L.; Koshevoy, I. O. Luminescent Triphosphine-Cyanide d10 Metal Complexes. Inorg. Chem. 2016, 55, 2174–2184.
  10. Sivchik, V. V.; Solomatina, A. I.; Chen, Y.-T.; Karttunen, A. J.; Tunik, S. P.; Chou, P.-T.; Koshevoy, I. O. Halogen Bonding to Amplify Luminescence: A Case Study Using a Platinum Cyclometalated Complex. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2015, 54, 14057–14060.

Functional surfaces

Functional surfaces


Photocatalysis Research Group


The photocatalysis research group is a part of Functional Surfaces research topic at the Department of Chemistry in the University of Eastern Finland. The group is also a member of the UEF Photonics Research Community and a member of the Academy of Finland Flagship on Photonics Research and Innovation (PREIN).


Photocatalysis utilizes light to activate chemical reactions. The most studied photocatalytic material is titanium dioxide (TiO2), which is a widely used white, inert, and non-toxic pigment and semiconductor. The bandgap of TiO2 is 3.2 eV corresponding to the UVA-range that is only approximately 3-5% of the solar spectrum. Therefore, recent research has focused on functionalization of TiO2 structures, for example, with metal nanoparticles that can couple visible light wavelengths for the photocatalytic excitation via plasmonic coupling. This can significantly improve the efficiency of such metal-semiconductor composites.


Our research group concentrates on fabrication and characterization of TiO2 inverse opal structures functionalized with different metallic nanostructures that allow efficient solar-driven chemical reactions and improved hydrogen evolution.




The photocatalysis laboratory is located at the Futura Building in the UEF Joensuu campus. The laboratory is equipped with novel gas-phase photocatalytic activity characterization tools and possibilities for various synthesis routes for multicompound and multilayer inverse opal semiconductor structures. The infrastructure includes measuring, imaging and manufacturing devices, for example:

  • Renishaw inVia confocal Raman microscope: chemical structure of materials as a function of sample depth, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy
  • Hitachi S-4800 FE-SEM scanning electron microscope with Thermo Electron Noran System Six 200 EDS detector: examination of surface structures of materials in micro and nanometer scale and measurement of elemental composition
  • Perkin Elmer Lambda 900 UV/VIS/NIR spectrometer: characterization of chemical structure of materials and measurement of colour, transmission and reflection properties
  • JNM-EC500 JEOL 500MHz NMR spectrometer: characterization of chemical structure of liquid and solid materials
  • Bruker Vertex 70 FTIR spectrometer: characterization of chemical structure of materials
  • KSV Cam 200 Contact angle meter: wettability of materials, contact angle and surface tension
  • KVS NIMA Dipcoater and Laurell technologies Co WS-400A-6NPP/LITE/10K spin coater: coating of materials with solutions
  • Cressington 208HR high resolution sputter coater: coating of materials with thin metal layer for SEM measurements
  • Haake MiniJet Micro compounder and Haake MiniLab micro Mini injection molding device: injection molding in laboratory scale and preparation of test specimen
  • Oxford Instruments Plasmalab 80plus ICP-DRIE plasma system: tailoring of surface structure and chemistry of materials
  • An in-house-built gas-phase photoreactor for photocatalytic activity characterization (measured by degradation of C2H2 into CO2 that is directly detected by an optical detector (Vaisala GMP343 diffusion mode) inside the photoreactor)
  • XRD by Bruker-AXS D8 Advance device



Group members


An automatically updated list of personnel can be found from the group UEF Connect website (see




Our recent publications can be found from the group UEF Connect website (see


For further information and inquiries, please contact the head of the Photocatalysis research group, Assoc. Prof. Jarkko J. Saarinen (

Molecular Modelling

Molecular Modelling


The infrastructure includes computer clusters located at the Futura building (UEF, Joensuu campus):

  • Dell EMC PowerEdge – 1240 cores
  • HP ProLiant – 768 cores
  • Dell PowerEdge – 768 cores

The computer clusters are combined into a grid of computer clusters situated at different locations around Finland (The Finnish Grid and Cloud Infrastructure, The joint resources are part of the cPouta cloud.

Keywords: 2D materials; carbon based nanomaterials; light emitting molecules; functional surfaces; metamaterials; THz optics; nonlinear optics; nanomaterials; carbon; graphene; femtosecond laser ablation; functional materials; catalysis; chemistry; clay; computational chemistry; coupling chemistry; DFT calculations; friction surfaces; inorganic chemistry; luminescent materials; MAO; material chemistry; metal injection molding (MIM); metallocene; molecular dynamics; molecular modeling; non-covalent interactions; nuclear waste disposal; OLED; organometallic chemistry; photocatalysis; photonics; plastics; polyolefin; quantum chemistry; self-assembly; surfaces; sustainable development; X-ray structural analysis; Ziegler-Natta